Parsley, Organic Dried

$3.22

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Description

Parsley

Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of Petroselinum in the family Apiaceae, native to the centralMediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as a herb, aspice, and a vegetable.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm (3.9–9.8 in) long with numerous 1–3 cm (0.4–1.2 in) leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter.

Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cooking. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe and southern Europe, as well as and in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Root parsley is very common in central, eastern and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles.

Etymology

The word “parsley” is a merger of the Old English petersilie (which is identical to the contemporary German word for parsley: Petersilie) and the Old French peresil, both derived from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum, which is the latinization of the Greekπετροσέλινον (petroselinon), “rock-celery”, from (petra), “rock, stone”, (selinon), “celery”.   Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, in Linear B, is the earliest attested form of the word selinon.

Description

Garden parsley is a bright green, biennial, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb insubtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm (30 in) tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers. The seeds are ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The plant normally dies after seed maturation.

Cultivation

Parsley, fresh
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 151 kJ (36 kcal)
Carbohydrates
6.33 g
Sugars 0.85 g
Dietary fiber 3.3 g
Fat
0.79 g
Protein
2.97 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.

beta-carotene
lutein zeaxanthin
(53%)

421 μg

(47%)

5054 μg

5561 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)

0.086 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)

0.09 mg

Niacin (B3)
(9%)

1.313 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
(8%)

0.4 mg

Vitamin B6
(7%)

0.09 mg

Folate (B9)
(38%)

152 μg

Vitamin C
(160%)

133 mg

Vitamin E
(5%)

0.75 mg

Vitamin K
(1562%)

1640 μg

Minerals
Calcium
(14%)

138 mg

Iron
(48%)

6.2 mg

Magnesium
(14%)

50 mg

Manganese
(8%)

0.16 mg

Phosphorus
(8%)

58 mg

Potassium
(12%)

554 mg

Sodium
(4%)

56 mg

Zinc
(11%)

1.07 mg


Link to USDA Database entry
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Parsley grows best in moist, well-drained soil, with full sun. It grows best between 22–30 °C (72–86 °F), and usually is grown from seed.  Germination is slow, taking four to six weeks, and it often is difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat.  Typically, plants grown for the leaf crop are spaced 10 cm apart, while those grown as a root crop are spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the root development.

Parsley attracts several species of wildlife. Some swallowtail butterflies use parsley as a host plant for their larvae; their caterpillars are black and green striped with yellow dots, and will feed on parsley for two weeks before turning into butterflies. Bees and other nectar-feeding insects also visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds.

Cultivars

In cultivation, parsley is subdivided into several cultivar groups, depending on the form of the plant, which is related to its end use. Often these are treated as botanical varieties, but they are cultivated selections, not of natural botanical origin.

Leaf parsley

The two main groups of parsley used as herbs are curly leaf (i.e.) (P. crispum crispum group; syn. P. crispum var. crispum) and Italian, or flat leaf (P. crispum neapolitanum group; syn. P. crispum var. neapolitanum); of these, the neapolitanum group more closely resembles the natural wild species. Flat-leaved parsley is preferred by some gardeners as it is easier to cultivate, being more tolerant of both rain and sunshine,[13] and is said to have a stronger flavor[9] (though this is disputed[13]), while curly leaf parsley is preferred by others because of its more decorative appearance in garnishing.[13][14] A third type, sometimes grown in southern Italy, has thick leaf stems resembling celery.[13]

Root parsley

Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable, the Hamburg root parsley (P. crispumradicosum group, syn. P. crispum var. tuberosum). This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Although seldom used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is common in central and eastern European cuisine, where it is used in soups and stews, or simply eaten raw, as a snack (similar to carrots).[13]

Although root parsley looks similar to the parsnip, which is among its closest relatives in the family Apiaceae, its taste is quite different.

Culinary uses

Parsley is widely used in Middle Eastern, European, Brazilian and American cooking. Curly leaf parsley is used often as a garnish. Green parsley is used frequently as a garnish on potato dishes (boiled or mashed potatoes), on rice dishes (risotto or pilaf), on fish, fried chicken, lamb, goose, and steaks, as well in meat or vegetable stews (including shrimp creole, beef bourguignon, goulash, or chicken paprikash).[15]

In central Europe, eastern Europe and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green, chopped parsley sprinkled on top. In southern and central Europe, parsley is part of bouquet garni, a bundle of fresh herbs used as an ingredient instocks, soups, and sauces. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups such as chicken soup, green salads, or salads such as salade Olivier, and on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés.

Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine.

Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it withbollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese.

In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon.

Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth.

In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa  and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde, literally “green aroma”), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, soups, vegetables, salads, condiments, sauces, and stocks. Cheiro-verde is sold in food markets as a bundle of both types of fresh herbs. In some Brazilian regions, chopped parsley may be replaced by chopped coriander (cilantro) in the mixture.

Parsley is a key ingredient in several Middle Eastern salads such as Lebanese tabbouleh.

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